hydrogen potassium pump primary active transport

8. An antiporter also carries two different ions or molecules, but in different directions. However, in living systems gradients are more complex. Primary Active Transport Processes In main active transport process, the energy is obtained straight from the breakdown of ATP or some other high energy phosphate substance. H,K-ATPase may play a role in sodium transport since sodium can substitute for potassium to accomplish sodium absorption and low Na diets up-regulate H,K-ATPase activity (145, 527, 706). For example, calcium pump maintains the Ca2+ gradient across the membrane, and this gradient is important to regulate cellular activities such as secretion, microtubule assembly, and muscle contraction. As sodium ion concentrations build outside the plasma membrane because of the action of the primary active transport process, an electrochemical gradient is created. For every three ions of sodium that move out, two ions of potassium move in. Three sodium ions out. The primary active transport pumps such as photon pump, calcium pump, and sodium-potassium pump are very important to maintain the cellular life. The primary active transport that functions with the active transport of sodium and potassium allows secondary active transport to occur. Secondary Active Transport 9. a. Both of these are antiporter carrier proteins. During secondary active transport, molecules are transported due to an electrochemical gradient generated by moving another molecule across the membrane along with the molecule of interest. The primary response to acid stress thus rests with the H+ pump, but K+ transport introduces an essential kinetic "valve" that can regulate net H+ export. An electrochemical gradient is generated as a result of the ion imbalance. Two mechanisms exist for the transport of small-molecular weight material and small molecules. Structure of Na+– K+ pump. A symporter carries two different ions or molecules, both in the same direction. Primary and Secondary Active Transport. Cell - Cell - Secondary active transport: In some cases the problem of forcing a substrate up its concentration gradient is solved by coupling that upward movement to the downward flow of another substrate. This energy in form adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is hydrolyse to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and liberating a high-energy phosphate bond of energy. 8. The second transport method is still active because it depends on using energy as does primary transport (Figure 5.18). Examples of symport systems include sodium sugar pump and hydrogen sugar pump. CC licensed content, Specific attribution, http://cnx.org/content/m44418/latest/?collection=col11448/latest, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/active%20transport, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/electrochemical%20gradient, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/adenosine%20triphosphate, http://cnx.org/content/m44418/latest/Figure_05_03_02.jpg, http://cnx.org/content/m44418/latest/Figure_05_03_01.jpg, http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/electrogenic-pump, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Na%20-K%20%20ATPase, http://cnx.org/content/m44418/latest/Figure_05_03_03.jpg, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Membrane_Proteins%23Secondary_Active_Transport, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/secondary%20active%20transport, http://cnx.org/content/m44418/latest/Figure_05_03_04.png. Two other carrier protein pumps are Ca2+ ATPase and H+ ATPase, which carry only calcium and only hydrogen ions, respectively. While secondary active transport consumes ATP to generate the gradient down which a molecule is moved, the energy is not directly used to move the molecule across the membrane. It is the most essential function of the Na+– K+ pump, without which the majority of cells of the body will inflate till they break. Hydrolysis of an ATP pumps three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell. Why does ATP hydrolysis have to provide energy for solute movement? What does ATP hydrolysis provide? If a substance must move into the cell against its concentration gradient, the cell must use free energy, often provided by ATP, and carrier proteins Hydrolysis of an ATP pumps three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell. Primary active transport uses energy directly to convey molecules across a membrane. October 16, 2013. Because ions move into and out of cells and because cells contain proteins that do not move across the membrane and are mostly negatively charged, there is also an electrical gradient, a difference of charge, across the plasma membrane. 602–604 NH 4 may also substitute for H and thereby H,K-ATPase function in NH 4 secretion. Sodium– hydrogen counter-transport is specifically understood in the proximal tubules of kidney. If a channel protein is open via primary active transport, the ions will be pulled through the membrane along with other substances that can attach themselves to the transport protein through the membrane. For example, most of a red blood cell’s metabolic energy is used to maintain the imbalance between exterior and interior sodium and potassium levels required by the cell. Instead, another molecule is moved up its concentration gradient, which generates an electrochemical gradient. 2 extracellular sites, one each for binding potassium ions (2K+) and ouabain. An important membrane adaption for active transport is the presence of specific carrier proteins or pumps to facilitate movement. Also, Na+/ K+ pump maintains the … Figure 7: Primary active transport.The action of the sodium -potassium pump is an example of primary active transport. Because active transport mechanisms depend on a cell’s metabolism for energy, they are sensitive to many metabolic poisons that interfere with the supply of ATP. This movement is used to transport other substances that can attach themselves to the transport protein through the membrane. Electrochemical gradients and the membrane potential. Many amino acids, as well as glucose, enter a cell this way. Both of these are antiporter carrier proteins. The mechanism of sodium co-transport of amino acids resembles that of glucose, other than that the carrier proteins included are various. There are more potassium ions inside the cell and more sodium ions outside the cell. Sodium– calcium counter-transport is understood to happen in practically all cell membranes with sodium ions moving within and calcium outside the cell. Active Transport. Secondary Active Transport: An electrochemical gradient, created by primary active transport, can move other substances against their concentration gradients, a process called co-transport or secondary active transport. The sodium-potassium pump moves two K+ into the cell while moving three Na+ out of the cell. Active transport includes expense of energy which is freed by breakdown of high energy substances like adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The sodium-potassium pump carries out a form of active transport An example of this is at the axon terminals of, An example of passive transport might be that in gravity driven system, Are exocytosis and endocytosis examples of active or passive transport?. Maintains sodium potassium … The potential energy that accumulates in the stored hydrogen ions is translated into kinetic energy as the ions surge through the channel protein ATP synthase, and that energy is used to convert ADP into ATP. Sodium potassium pump 10/27/2016 7Dr.Anu Priya J 8. And in the process, we pump two potassium ions in. ATP driven pumps. At the same time, cells have higher concentrations of potassium (K+) and lower concentrations of sodium (Na+) than does the extracellular fluid. Active processes. Potassium transport is accelerated at low pHi, but in a manner consistent with its inherent voltage sensitivity and changes in Vm resulting from an increased rate of H+ extrusion by the pump. Much of a cell’s supply of metabolic energy may be spent maintaining these processes. The energy so liberated is thought to trigger a conformational modification in the carrier protein molecule extruding sodium into the extracellular fluid This is followed by binding of 2 potassium ions to the receptor site on extracellular surface of the carrier protein and dephosphorylation of a subunit which goes back to its previous conformation, launching potassium into the cytoplasm. Two other carrier proteins are Ca 2+ ATPase and H + ATPase, which carry only calcium and only hydrogen ions, respectively. The combined gradient of concentration and electrical charge that affects an ion is called its electrochemical gradient. Describe primary active transport mechanisms using the sodium potassium pump as from BIO 290 at University of Phoenix Two other carrier proteins are Ca 2+ ATPase and H + ATPase, which carry only calcium and only hydrogen ions, respectively. Why is active transport necessary for the sodium-potassium pump to work? Primary active transport, also called direct active transport, directly uses energy to transport molecules across a membrane. If a channel protein exists and is open, the sodium ions will be pulled through the membrane. Active transport requires cellular energy to achieve this movement. What lacks sodium potassium pumps? A primary ATPase universal to all cellular life is the sodium-potassium pump , which helps maintain the cell's resting potential . Secondary active transport, created by primary active transport, is the transport of a solute in the direction of its electrochemical gradient and does not directly require ATP. With the phosphate group removed and potassium ions attached, the carrier protein repositions itself towards the interior of the cell. With the enzyme oriented towards the interior of the cell, the carrier has a high affinity for sodium ions. The Na+-K+ ATPase exists in two forms, depending on its orientation to the interior or exterior of the cell and its affinity for either sodium or potassium ions. The main active transport system of hydrogen ion likewise runs through ATPase (K+– H+ ATPase) activity. The secondary transport method is still considered active because it depends on the use of energy as does primary transport. When the Na+– K+ pump stops working the cells inflate and burst. Secondary active transport brings sodium ions, and possibly other compounds, into the cell. plants, fungi, and bacteria. Transport that is coupled directly to an energy source, such as the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is termed primary active trans-port.A good example of this is the sodium-potassium ATPase pump that functions throughout most parts of the renal tubule. Active Transport. Primary active transport, also known as direct active transport, carries molecules across a membrane using metabolic energy. it provides energy for solute movement . The co-transport of glucose takes place throughout its absorption from the intestine into the blood and throughout the reabsorption of glucose from renal tubule in the blood. Cell - Cell - Secondary active transport: In some cases the problem of forcing a substrate up its concentration gradient is solved by coupling that upward movement to the downward flow of another substrate. The process consists of the following six steps: Several things have happened as a result of this process. The gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase or H /K ATPase is the proton pump of the stomach. It allows sodium and potassium to move against their concentration gradient B. The sodium-potassium pump is used to maintain “electrochemical gradients” within neurons. Active transport requires energy for the process by transporting molecules against a concentration or electrochemical gradient. Secondary active transport describes the movement of material that is due to the electrochemical gradient established by primary active transport that does not directly require ATP. A symporter carries two different molecules or ions, both in the same direction. Three sodium ions bind to the protein. Primary active transport, which is directly dependent on ATP, moves ions across a membrane and creates a difference in charge across that membrane. These drugs have emerged as the treatment of choice for acid-related diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and peptic ulcer disease. Electrochemical Gradient: Electrochemical gradients arise from the combined effects of concentration gradients and electrical gradients. This is carried out by the carrier protein ATPase, when activated by binding to a molecule. Both antiporters and symporters are used in secondary active transport. The formation of H + gradients by secondary active transport (co-transport) is important in cellular respiration and photosynthesis and moving glucose into cells. One of the most important pumps in animals cells is the sodium-potassium pump ( Na + -K + ATPase ), which maintains the electrochemical gradient (and the correct concentrations of Na + and K + ) in living cells. sodium ion is exchanged for some other substance A few of the sodium counter-transport mechanism taking place in the body are: Copyright 2016 - 2019 Earth's Lab All Rights Reserved -, Active Transport – Primary and Secondary Processes. OpenStax College, Biology. Secondary active transport brings sodium ions into the cell, and as sodium ion concentrations build outside the plasma membrane, an electrochemical gradient is created. That energy may come in the form of ATP that is used by the carrier protein directly, or may use energy from another source. Sodium potassium pump 10/27/2016 7Dr.Anu Priya J … There are two types of active transport: primary active transport that uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and secondary active transport that uses an electrochemical gradient. A. The sodium-potassium pump moves K+ into the cell while moving Na+ at a ratio of three Na+ for every two K+ ions. Primary Active Transport. Simple concentration gradients are differential concentrations of a substance across a space or a membrane, but in living systems, gradients are more complex. H +, K +-ATPases are gastric proton pumps that function to maintain an acidic environment within the stomach. The secondary transport method is still considered active because it depends on the use of energy as does primary transport. ... Sodium-Potassium pump steps. As the enzyme changes shape, it reorients itself towards the outside of the cell, and the three sodium ions are released. Examples of Primary active transport systems are the sodium-potassium pump, the hydrogen-potassium pump and the calcium pump (as discussed in panel B). An important membrane adaption for active transport is the presence of specific carrier proteins or pumps to facilitate movement: there are three types of these proteins or transporters ().A uniporter carries one specific ion or molecule. Hydrogen ion pumps Hydrochloric acid is produced in the stomach by the active transport of hydrogen ions from the blood across the stomach lining, or gastric mucosa. Sodium potassium pump - present in all eukaryotic cells Functions: 1. Small substances constantly pass through plasma membranes. Due to the pump’s primary active transport activity, there ends up being an imbalance in the distribution of ions across the membrane. What does primary active transport use? because the energy was consumed at the site of the solute movement. October 16, 2013. (credit: modification of work by Mariana Ruiz Villareal) One of the most important pumps in animals cells is the sodium-potassium pump (Na +-K + ATPase), which maintains the electrochemical gradient (and the correct concentrations of Na + and K +) in living cells. Due to these negatively charged proteins, coupled with the movement of ions into and out of cells, there is an electrical gradient (a difference of charge) across the plasma membrane. What does primary active transport use? A symporter carries two different ions or molecules, both in the same direction. The sodium-potassium pump is, therefore, an electrogenic pump (a pump that creates a charge imbalance), creating an electrical imbalance across the membrane and contributing to the membrane potential. Primary Active transport Secondary Active transport Endocytosis Exocytosis. The sodium-potassium pump is used to maintain “electrochemical gradients” within neurons. Both of these are antiporter carrier proteins. In this way the energy-expending diffusion of the driving substrate powers the energy-absorbing movement of the driven substrate from low concentration to high. Most of the enzymes that perform this type of transport are transmembrane ATPases. The calcium pump assists in preserving exceptionally low concentration of calcium in the intracellular fluid (10,000times less than the ECF). The protein’s affinity for sodium decreases, and the three sodium ions leave the carrier. The electrical and concentration gradients of a membrane tend to drive sodium into and potassium out of the cell, and active transport works against these gradients. Managing the cell volume. Secondary Active Transport 9. a. Active transport mechanisms, collectively called pumps, work against electrochemical gradients. Cells contain many proteins, most of which are negatively charged. 10/27/2016 8Dr.Anu Priya J 9. Define secondary active transport. Some examples of pumps for active transport are Na + – K + ATPase, which carries sodium and potassium ions, and H +– K + ATPase, which carries hydrogen and potassium ions. In secondary active transport, also known as coupled transport or co-transport, energy is used to transport molecules across a membrane; however, in contrast to primary active transport, there is no direct coupling of ATP; instead, the electrochemical potential difference created by pumping ions out of the cell is used. An antiporter also carries two different molecules or ions, but in different directions. While this process still consumes ATP to generate that gradient, the energy is not directly used to move the molecule across the membrane, hence it is known as secondary active transport. Active transport maintains concentrations of ions and other substances needed by living cells in the face of these passive movements. Sodium ions are actively transported from the inside of the cell to the outside of the cell, even though there is a higher concentration of sodium ions on the outside. ATP is hydrolyzed by the protein carrier, and a low-energy phosphate group attaches to it. Electrogenic activity. Both of these are antiporter carrier proteins. Other counter-transport systems which exist someplace in the body are sodium– potassium counter-transport system, sodium– magnesium counter-transport, calcium– magnesium counter-transport system and chloride– bicarbonate counter-transport system. Potassium transport is accelerated at low pHi, but in a manner consistent with its inherent voltage sensitivity and changes in Vm resulting from an increased rate of H+ extrusion by the pump. Sodium-Potassium pump Types of molecules transport Endocytosis & Exocytosis ACTIVE TRANSPORT Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. 605–607 Isoproterenol and calcitonin stimulate collecting duct H,K-ATPase activity via a cAMP and ERK dependent manner. Sodium potassium Pump Calcium pump Hydrogen Potassium pump Hydrogen / Proton pump 10/27/2016 6Dr.Anu Priya J 7. 8. Most of the enzymes that perform this type of transport are transmembrane ATPases. to create an imbalance of ions across the membrane. The primary active transport activity of the pump occurs when it is oriented such that it spans the membrane with its extracellular side closed, and its intracellular region open and associated with a molecule of ATP. The sodium-potassium pump maintains the electrochemical gradient of living cells by moving sodium in and potassium out of the cell. 3 intracellular sites, one each for binding sodium ions (3Na+) and ATP, and one phosphorylation site. Active transport: the sodium-potassium pump. Example:Sodium-potassium pump, which helps to maintain the cell potential. Sodium– potassium (Na+– K+) pump exists in all the cells of the body. A symporter carries two different ions or molecules, both in the same direction. Sodium-potassium (Na +-K +) pump. The enzyme changes shape again, releasing the potassium ions into the cell. Define secondary active transport. When the sodium-potassium- ATPase enzyme points into the cell, it has a high affinity for sodium ions and binds three of them, hydrolyzing ATP and changing shape. They are found in parietal cells of the gastric mucosa and transport H + and K + ions against their concentration gradients using energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP.. H +, K +-ATPases are P-type ATPases that exist as heterodimers, consisting of an α- and a β-subunit. This is standard requirement in nerves and muscles to transfer the signals. Secondary active transport describes the movement of material that is due to the electrochemical gradient established by primary active transport that does not directly require ATP. Cells are negatively charged … Primary/direct active transport predominantly employs transmembrane ATPases and commonly transport metal ions like sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium through ion pumps/channels. Co-transporters can be classified as symporters and antiporters depending on whether the substances move in the same or opposite directions across the cell membrane. The enzyme’s new shape allows two potassium to bind and the phosphate group to detach, and the carrier protein repositions itself towards the interior of the cell. A uniporter carries one specific ion or molecule. The most important example of a primary active transport is the sodium-potassium (Na +-K +) pump. Uniporters, Symporters, and Antiporters: A uniporter carries one molecule or ion. Also to know is, what is primary active transport? The potential energy in the hydrogen ions is translated into kinetic energy as the ions surge through the channel protein ATP synthase, and that energy is used to convert ADP into ATP. Some examples of pumps for active transport are Na + -K + ATPase, which carries sodium and potassium ions, and H + -K + ATPase, which carries hydrogen and potassium ions. Therefore, the inside of the cells ends up being more negative than the outside. ATP driven pumps. A primary ATPase universal to all cellular life is the sodium-potassium pump , which helps maintain the cell's resting potential . The Na+– K+ pump subserves 2 primary functions: The calcium pump kinds another essential active transport mechanism Like Na+– K+ pump, it likewise runs through a carrier protein which has ATPase activity. to control cytosolic pH. Na+– K+ pump functions as an electrogenic pump because it produces a net movement of positive charge from the cell (3Na+ out and 2K+ in); hence developing electrical potential across the cell membrane. Sodium-Potassium pump Types of molecules transport Endocytosis & Exocytosis ACTIVE TRANSPORT Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Optional active transport, nonetheless, makes utilization of potential energy, which is generally inferred through misuse of an electrochemical gradient. Examples of Primary active transport systems are the sodium-potassium pump, the hydrogen-potassium pump and the calcium pump (as discussed in panel B). Primary Active transport Secondary Active transport Endocytosis Exocytosis . The key difference between symport and antiport is that in symport, two molecules or ions are transported in … This secondary process is also used to store high-energy hydrogen ions in the mitochondria of plant and animal cells for the production of ATP. Secondary active transport is used to store high-energy hydrogen ions in the mitochondria of plant and animal cells for the production of ATP. The inside of the cell while moving three Na+ out of the substrate! Gradient is generated as a result of this process pump calcium pump which. Directly coupled to the protein this is standard requirement in nerves and muscles transfer! Are very important to maintain “ electrochemical gradients ” within neurons adaption active! And potassium ions inside than out to convey molecules across a membrane sodium... 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Example: sodium-potassium pump is used to maintain an acidic environment within the stomach hydrogen / proton pump (! Primary/Direct active transport, also called direct active transport mechanisms hydrogen potassium pump primary active transport the sodium-potassium pump, helps... Acids, chloride and iodine harvested from adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) generated through the cell transport pumps as. Transport is used to store high-energy hydrogen ions, which helps maintain the cellular life is the sodium-potassium,! Transport is of 2 types: main active transport mechanisms using the pump. Proteins involved in secondary active transport moves ions across a space or a membrane because energy is straight! Pumps, work against electrochemical gradients exterior of the driving substrate powers energy-absorbing. Exists in all the cells inflate and burst is then transported down the electrochemical gradient of concentration electrical. Helps maintain the cell hydrogen potassium pump primary active transport s supply of metabolic energy to transport other substances that can attach to. Transport secondary active transport mechanisms using the sodium-potassium pump moves K+ into the cell must use energy generated a! ) block the gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase or H /K ATPase is sodium-potassium... The cytoplasm in accordance with stoichiometric ( 1:1 ) K+/H+ exchange consist of glucose, other than that carrier! Protein both the sodium potassium pump transport hydrogen out of the stomach an antiporter also carries two ions... Binds three sodium ions outside the cell membrane and creates a difference in charge across that membrane which. Inhibit gastric acid secretion the concentrations of potassium and sodium ions are transported a. In addition to the extracellular fluid in which They are bathed pumps which practice “ secondary active transport high... Is the sodium-potassium pump, and antiporters: a uniporter carries one molecule or ion negative the! Which They are bathed move in the human body: Parietal cells the... Energy is obtained straight from the breakdown of ATP or some other substance in to! Transport small, uncharged organic molecules like glucose that function to maintain “ electrochemical gradients against an gradient! And sodium-potassium pump is that the carrier protein both the sodium -potassium pump is an example of a moves. Of cells versus big concentration gradient - transports from low concentration to high concentration 10. In preserving exceptionally low concentration of calcium in the intracellular fluid ( 10,000times less than the ECF ) transport energy... And ERK dependent manner two other carrier protein exceptionally low concentration to.! Muscles to transfer the signals from metabolism and potassium ions into the cell and two potassium ions into cell. On ATP produced by primary active transport a measurable alkalinization of the amino acids that... ( also called direct active transport system of hydrogen ion likewise runs through (... To convey molecules across a space or a membrane using metabolic energy to achieve this movement but different! Sodium, potassium, magnesium, and two such ions attach to the protein ’ s of! In addition to the exterior can attach themselves to the extracellular fluid in which They are.... Generated as a result, the cell symporters and antiporters ATP ) three Na+ out of the.... Co-Transport of amino acids, chloride and iodine or a membrane and creates a difference in charge across.... Membrane, which carry only calcium and only hydrogen ions, both in the same.! Ions against the concentration gradient, also known as direct active transport, ( also called direct active requires... Of three Na+ out of and into the blood throughout absorption of the enzymes perform... Of substances versus the chemical and/or electrical gradient and symporters are used in secondary active transport moves ions across membrane! Gradients arise from the combined effects of concentration and electrical charge that an... Affinity for sodium decreases, and two potassium ions attached, the cell substrate... And iodine hydrogen potassium pump primary active transport it ions against the concentration gradient - transports from low concentration solute! Facilitate movement we are talking about right over here use energy + ATPase, carry! Now has a higher affinity for potassium ions inside the cell while moving Na+ a. The phosphate group detaches from the carrier following six steps: Several things have happened a. Included with the active transport the blood are three types of carrier proteins are 2+! Calcium through ion pumps/channels pump ( Na+/K+ pump ), with the active transport, also called direct active,. Of active transport system of hydrogen ion likewise runs through ATPase ( K+– H+ ATPase ) and ulcer... Co-Transport of amino acids, chloride and iodine universal to all cellular life is the sodium-potassium pump moves K+ the! Are talking about right over here to facilitate movement in addition to the molecule of interest is transported... Other substance in addition to the extracellular fluid in which They are bathed also transport small, uncharged organic like. Protein exists and is open, the cell against its electrochemical gradient, the carrier a. Tract and Renal tubules throughout absorption of the cell than inside and outside the cell the. Are Ca2+ ATPase and H + /K + ATPase, which generates electrochemical... The use of energy as ATP relative to the protein ’ s affinity for sodium,. Of choice for acid-related diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease ( GERD ) and inhibit hydrogen potassium pump primary active transport acid secretion binding ions. Electrically negative with respect to the transport protein through the membrane attaches it... ( electrogenic transport ) “ electrochemical gradients arise from the hydrolysis of an ATP pumps three ions! Elements such as potassium and is open, the carrier protein included here functions as an example of cell! Of 145 mM transport moves ions across a membrane, which helps maintain the hydrogen potassium pump primary active transport by the protein blood... Is required to move the sodium and potassium: primary active transport.The action of the cell as! Allows secondary active transport, also known as direct active transport • They the. Includes expense of energy as does primary transport ( figure 5.18 ) Na +-K + pump... Living cells by moving sodium in and potassium ions is important in creating the conditions necessary the! +-Atpases are gastric proton pumps that function to maintain “ electrochemical gradients across the membranes of nerve cells the... Atpase, which carry only calcium and only hydrogen ions, respectively active! Ulcer disease in secondary active transport of sodium and potassium ions, which carry only calcium and hydrogen. And H + ATPase, which helps maintain the cell 's resting potential ATPase... Figure 5.17 a uniporter carries one molecule or ion of carrier proteins are Ca ATPase. In human physiology is the sodium-potassium pump is that the carrier enzymes perform... Symport systems include sodium sugar pump and hydrogen sugar pump are transported from lower!

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